Civil engineering provides design, construction and maintenance of physically and
naturally built environments, including bridges, roads, canals, dams and buildings. Sub-
units of civil engineering include environmental , geotechnical , structural , transportation
, municipal , water resources , materials , surveying, and construction . Civil engineering
is practiced in the public sector from city to federal departments, and in the private sector
for homeowners to major companies. Civil engineering is performed using specialized
knowledge of structures, materials science, geography, geology, soils, hydrology,
environment, mechanics and other fields. An engineer's work must also comply with
numerous other rules and regulations such as building codes and legislation pertaining
to environmental law.

In general, civil engineering is concerned with fitting a project into a site by designing the
grading, drainage, pavement, water supply, sewer service, electric and communications
supply, and land divisions. This requires engineers to spend time at the project site,
developing community consensus, and preparing the construction plans. General civil
engineering is sometimes called site engineering, concerned with converting a land
parcel from one use into another use. Typically, many of the civil engineering areas are
applied to residential, commercial, industrial and public works projects and their
construction:  geotechnical, structural, environmental, transportation.


Areas of Civil Engineering Practice:

Construction engineering
- Construction engineering plans and executes the designs
covering transportation, site development, hydraulics, environmental, structural and
geotechnical. Construction engineering is focused on more business-like problems of
drafting and reviewing contracts, evaluating logistical operations, and closely-monitoring
prices of labor and materials.

Environmental engineering - Environmental engineering deals with treatment of
chemical, biological, and/or thermal waste, purification of water and air, and remediation
of contaminated sites, due to prior waste disposal or accidental contamination. Among
topics covered by environmental engineering are pollutant transport, water purification,
waste water treatment, air pollution, solid waste treatment and hazardous waste
management. Environmental engineers are be involved with pollution reduction, green
engineering, and industrial ecology. Environmental engineering also gathers information
on environmental consequences of proposed actions and assessment of effects of
proposed actions to benefit society and policy makers in decision making.  Environmental
engineering is contemporary with sanitary engineering, though sanitary engineering
excludes hazardous waste management and environmental remediation work, which are
known too as environmental engineering. Other names are public health and
environmental health engineering.

Geotechnical engineering - Geotechnical engineering Geotechnical engineering is a
sub area of civil engineering dealing with rock and soil that provide base support for civil
engineering systems. Expertise in geology, material science and testing, mechanics, and
hydraulics are essential to geotechnical engineers to safely and economically design
foundations, retaining walls, and similar structures. Environmental concerns deal with
groundwater and waste disposal, which extends geotechnical engineering into the realm
of geoenvironmental engineering where biology and chemistry are important. Major
difficulties in geotechnical engineering are based upon the variability of soil.

Water resources engineering - Water resources engineering deals with collection
and management of water as a natural resource.  This engineering covers hydrology,
environmental science, meteorology, geology, conservation, and resource management.
Water engineering tries to predict and manage water in aquifers, lakes, rivers, and
streams. Water resource engineers analyze and model areas of land to predict amounts
of water flowing into, through, or out of land. From the model, actual design of a water
resource facility can be made. Hydraulic engineering deals with flow and conveyance
water, which covers design of pipelines, water distribution systems, drainage facilities,
such as bridges, dams, channels, culverts, levees, storm sewers), and canals. Hydraulic
engineers design theses facilities using engineering principles of fluid pressure, fluid
statics and dynamics, and hydraulics.

Materials engineering -  Material engineering deals with strength and durability of
concrete, asphalt concrete, and metals such as aluminum, steel, and polymers.  
Materials engineering offers protection and prevention of fatigue of materials using
paints and finishes. Alloys are another area of material engineering, where two different
metals produce a stronger metal.

Structural engineering - Structural engineering deals with structural design and
analysis of buildings, bridges, towers, flyovers, tunnels, off shore structures like oil and
gas fields in the sea, and other kinds of structures. This involves identifying loads acting
n a structure and forces and stresses arising within a structure due to those loads, and
then designing a structure to successfully support and resist those loads. The loads can
be weight of structures, dead and live loads, wind and earthquake loads, temperature
change loads. The structural engineer must design safe structures for users and to
perform the function they are intended for do.  Structural design concerns include
strength, stiffness, and stability of a structure when its subject to various of loads,
including temporary construction loading. Other design considerations include cost,
constructability, safety, aesthetics and sustainability.

Surveying engineering - Surveying engineering is a process where the
surveyor/engineer measures certain dimensions on the land. Surveying equipment is
predominantly computerized for electronic distance measurement (EDM), total station,
and GPS. This computerized information is crucial to convert data into a graphical
representation of the land’s surface as a map. This information is used by civil
engineers, contractors, architects, and maybe realtors to design from, build on, and
trade, respectively. Structural elements of a building or other facility must be correctly
sized and positioned with other elements and to the project site boundaries and adjacent
structures. Surveying is a distinct profession separate from civil engineering , although
civil engineers are trained in basic surveying and mapping. Surveyors also lay out
railways, tramway tracks, highways, roads, pipelines and streets as well as position other
infrastructures, such as harbors, before construction.

Land Surveying - Land surveying is a distinct profession apart from civil engineering. It
deals with boundary surveys to establish land boundaries for a land parcel.  
Establishment is made using a legal description of land, together with subdivision plans
and plot maps, based on a surveys of the land parcel, where land boundaries inside a
larger land parcel are created as new boundary lines and roads.

Construction Surveying - Construction surveying deals with the following tasks:

    • Survey existing conditions of the future work site, including topography, existing
    buildings and infrastructure, and even including underground infrastructure
    whenever possible;

    • Construction surveying for lay-out: to stake out reference points and markers
    that will guide construction of new structures such as roads or buildings for
    subsequent construction;

    • Verify location of structures during construction;

    • As-Built surveying: a survey conducted at the end of a construction project to
    verify the work authorized was completed to specifications set on plans.

Transportation engineering - Transportation engineering deals with moving people
and goods efficiently, safely, and in a way fostering a vibrant community. This involves
specifying, designing, constructing, and maintaining transportation infrastructure, which
includes streets, canals, highways, rail systems, airports, ports, and mass transit. It
includes areas such as transportation design, transportation planning, traffic
engineering, some aspects of urban engineering, queueing theory, pavement
engineering, Intelligent Transportation System (ITS), and infrastructure management.

Municipal engineering - Municipal engineering deals with municipal infrastructure.
This involves specifying, designing, constructing, and maintaining streets, sidewalks,
water supply networks, sewers, street lighting, municipal solid waste management and
disposal, storage depots for various bulk materials used for maintenance and public
works (salt, sand, etc), public parks and bicycle paths. In the case of underground utility
networks, it may also include the civil portion (conduits and access chambers) of the
local distribution networks of electrical and telecommunications services. It can also
include the optimizing of garbage collection and bus service networks. Some of these
disciplines overlap with other civil engineering specialties. Municipal engineering focuses
on the coordination of these infrastructure networks and services, as they are often built
simultaneously, and managed by the same municipal authority.
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